- L-Leucine: One of the three BCAAs (branched chain amino acids) that is involved in the activation of a protein that catalyzes muscle protein synthesis, and does so more powerfully than the other two BCAAs.
- L-Isoleucine: One of the three BCAAs that catalyzes muscle protein synthesis and significantly increases glucose use during exercise.
- L-Valine: One of the three BCAAs Less involved in muscle protein synthesis than the other two BCAAs but quick insulin resistance.
- L-Glutamine: an essential amino acid that is the primary source of fuel for both the intestinal and immune system. Provides benefits during endurance exercises
- 2-Hydroxyisocaproic acid (HICA): a metabolite of the branched chain amino acid that was shown to increase protein synthesis and muscle mass
- Lysine: an essential amino acid that is a key ingredient in protein synthesis. Lysine is not produced by the body.